FTTH is an abbreviation for Fiber-To-The-Home. This is a situation where fibre is laid from a terminal up to the edge of occupied premises. The fibre here is the fibre optics cable used in transmitting information data from one point to the other. Prior to its invention, copper cables was used in its stead for telephone or telegraph cables. Like in other spheres of technological advancement, the telecommunication sector has not been left out. The innovation of the FTTH cable is therefore a landmark achievement that has revolutionized the telecommunications sector. The obvious advantages of FTTH have made it the preferred data transmission option of the century. The innovation is most appreciated for the express speed at which data is transmitted and broadband access delivered through it to households, unlike the case with the copper cable previously used, which was way slower in this regard.
It has been canvassed that the speed advantage of this new data, audio and visuals’ transmission technology is due to the fact that unlike the traditional method of data transmission which uses electricity as its medium, FTTH cable technology employs light as its transport medium, conveying information at the speed of light. For its innovation, the technology may soon totally displace the traditional copper cable technology as a means of data and other information transfer.
- Internet speed: the speed at which data is transferred and broadband delivered is the prime edge that the FTTH cable technology has over the copper cable that was hitherto used. Since internet is fast becoming the medium for most communication world over, its speed has become a big issue and a decider where the intention is either to surf the net, download files, stream videos, or simply chat. The faster the internet speed delivered, the more it becomes earlier for people to stay in touch and maintain contact. The demand for internet has increased as more and more people now work from home outside formal settings, and their means of communication with the formal world is via fast uninterrupted internet.
- Technology: all over the world, there has been the shift from analog transmission to the digital. So, while the traditional copper cables are of the old analog order, FTTH represents the innovative digital world compliant order that seamlessly fits into other technological advancements in the telecommunications industry.
- Upcoming Applications: various innovative applications have been designed to leverage on the FTTH cable technology, hence, households can only maintain and enjoy such applications if they hook up with the fiber optic cable network connection.
- Availability of vendors: vendors or service providers of the FTTH cable technology are more readily available as those of the copper cable category are gradually being faced out of business.
- Expensive to deploy: the cost of procuring the cables and that of installation is so expensive that some households may not be able to afford it. It appears that the Fiber To The Premises (FTTP) cable technology may be a cheaper option;
- Fragile: the fragile nature of the optic fibre is such that can very easily suffer damage in the course of transportation or installation
Nothing in the world is constant! It has also been said that the only constant thing in the world is change! Scientific and technological changes are by no means the least in this regard, and the World Wide Web suffers no exception in this regard. It has evolved like others, although most imperceptibly, except to the IT professionals. Many are unaware of the various web versions that have existed since its inception. But generally, it is accepted that there have been Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Web 3.0.
What is Wide Area Network (WAN)? – This is a computer telecommunications network that spans an extensive geographical land area and distance. This kind of network thrives on much intervening distance(s), possibly in kilometres, between inter connected computer systems. The internet, being a form of Wide Area Network is often used by governments, commercial entities, Non Governmental Organizations (NGO’s) and individuals for communication. WAN therefore facilitates fast and effective business communication transactions, irrespective of location. The Wide Area Network can be said to be an interconnection of several Local Area Network (LAN).
A Service Provider avails a Subscriber with network access through either copper cable connections or the recent optic fibre cables. Its features are as discussed below;
Its main components are;
Standards: WAN operates within the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model which classifies communication systems into about 7 layers serving different specialized functions. It basically operates with Layer 1 and 2 levels. While Layer 1 involves the provision of functional mechanical and electrical connection in respect of the Internet Service Provider’s (ISP) service, the Layer 2 counterpart defines data encapsulated for transmission.
Some other common terminologies include;
Encapsulation: this is the packaging of data in protocol headers for WAN operations.
Packet and Circuit Switching: these switches are deployed for use in high-end networks. Presently, most switched networks get data through network via switching. While circuit switching is fast becoming archaic, and expensive, packet switching is more modern and cheaper.
Routing Protocol: This protocol determines the communication modalities of routers on a network. Each router is aware of its surrounding neighbours and network topology structure.
Routing Information Protocol (RIP): this has also been referred to as the “Rest in Pieces” due to its penchant for sometimes disrupting network connection.
Distance Vector: this routing protocol demands that each router communicate with its neighbour about its routing table.
Link State: this routing protocol demands each router to maintain a partial map of the network.
IGRP: this distance vector routing protocol was designed by CISCO for communicating routing data on a system.
Routing: this is the process of determining how to move data packets between networks.
Internet Protocol (IP) address: all devise connected to the internet has a unique IP address assigned to it, just like we have unique descriptions for houses.
Circuit Switched Leased Lines: maintains the channels between nodes and terminals that permit users to communicate.
Packet Switching: this describes the incidence whereby messages are disintegrated in protocols before their transmission over the internet.
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN): is the carrier of data, voice or images information through telecommunication mediums.
Packet Switched Data Network (PSDN): this is a network used for communicating data.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL): used to convey fast internet connections to micro businesses and homes.
Asymmetric Digital Subscribers Line (ADSL): mostly used for homes to provide high bandwidths.
High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL): this is one of the earlier forms of Digital Subscriber Line used for transmissions within sites, phone companies and the customer.